2. Summary of significant accounting policies (Policies)
|3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2014
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Development stage enterprise
Development Stage Enterprise
The Company is a development stage enterprise. Losses accumulated since the inception of the Company have been considered as part of the Companys development stage activities.
The Companys focus is on product development and marketing of proprietary devices that are designed to improve the operational parameters of petrochemical pipeline transport systems and has not yet generated revenues. The Company is currently transitioning from the product development cycle to the commercial manufacturing and sales cycle. Expenses have been funded through the sale of shares of common stock for cash, issuance of convertible notes for cash and the proceeds from exercise of options and warrants. The Company has taken actions to secure the intellectual property rights to the proprietary technologies and is the worldwide exclusive licensee for the intellectual property the Company co-developed with its intellectual property partner, Temple.
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and the settlement of liabilities and commitments in the normal course of business. As reflected in the accompanying consolidated financial statements, the Company is in a development stage and has not generated any revenues from operations, and had a net loss of $1,403,474 and a negative cash flow from operations of $1,368,699 for the quarter ended March 31, 2014 and accumulated deficit of $94,442,337 as of March 31, 2014. These factors raise substantial doubt about the Companys ability to continue as a going concern. As a result, the Companys independent registered public accounting firm, in its report on the Companys December 31, 2013 financial statements, has raised substantial doubt about the Companys ability to continue as a going concern. The ability of the Company to continue as a going concern is dependent upon the Companys ability to raise additional funds and implement its business plan. The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might be necessary if the Company is unable to continue as a going concern.
At March 31, 2014, the Company had cash on hand in the amount of $4,076,653. Management expects that the current funds on hand will be sufficient to continue operations through March 2015. Management is currently seeking additional funds, primarily through the issuance of debt and equity securities for cash to operate our business, including without limitation the expenses it will incur in connection with the license and research and development agreements with Temple; costs associated with product development and commercialization of the AOT technology; costs to manufacture and ship the products; costs to design and implement an effective system of internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures; costs of maintaining our status as a public company by filing periodic reports with the SEC and costs required to protect our intellectual property. In addition, as discussed below, the Company has substantial contractual commitments, including without limitation salaries to our executive officers pursuant to employment agreements, certain severance payments to former officers and consulting fees, during the remainder of 2014 and beyond.
No assurance can be given that any future financing will be available or, if available, that it will be on terms that are satisfactory to the Company. Even if the Company is able to obtain additional financing, it may contain undue restrictions on our operations, in the case of debt financing or cause substantial dilution for our stockholders, in case or equity financing.
|Property and Equipment and Depreciation
Property and Equipment and Depreciation
Property and equipment are stated at cost. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method based on the estimated useful lives of the assets, generally ranging from three to ten years. Expenditures for major renewals and improvements that extend the useful lives of property and equipment are capitalized. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset or the lease term.
|Basic and Diluted Income per share
Basic and Diluted Income per share
Our computation of earnings per share (EPS) includes basic and diluted EPS. Basic EPS is measured as the income (loss) available to common stockholders divided by the weighted average common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted income (loss) per share reflects the potential dilution, using the treasury stock method, that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock or resulted in the issuance of common stock that then shared in the income (loss) of the Company as if they had been converted at the beginning of the periods presented, or issuance date, if later. In computing diluted income (loss) per share, the treasury stock method assumes that outstanding options and warrants are exercised and the proceeds are used to purchase common stock at the average market price during the period. Options and warrants may have a dilutive effect under the treasury stock method only when the average market price of the common stock during the period exceeds the exercise price of the options and warrants. Potential common shares that have an antidilutive effect (i.e., those that increase income per share or decrease loss per share) are excluded from the calculation of diluted EPS.
Income (loss) per common share is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the respective periods. Basic and diluted (loss) per common share is the same for periods in which the company reported an operating loss because all warrants and stock options outstanding are anti-dilutive.
Income taxes are recognized for the amount of taxes payable or refundable for the current year and deferred tax liabilities and assets are recognized for the future tax consequences of transactions that have been recognized in the Companys consolidated financial statements or tax returns. A valuation allowance is provided when it is more likely than not that some portion or entire deferred tax asset will not be realized.
The Company periodically issues stock options and warrants to employees and non-employees in non-capital raising transactions for services and for financing costs. The Company accounts for stock option and warrant grants issued and vesting to employees based on the authoritative guidance provided by the Financial Accounting Standards Board whereas the value of the award is measured on the date of grant and recognized over the vesting period. The Company accounts for stock option and warrant grants issued and vesting to non-employees in accordance with the authoritative guidance of the Financial Accounting Standards Board whereas the value of the stock compensation is based upon the measurement date as determined at either a) the date at which a performance commitment is reached, or b) at the date at which the necessary performance to earn the equity instruments is complete. Non-employee stock-based compensation charges generally are amortized over the vesting period on a straight-line basis. In certain circumstances where there are no future performance requirements by the non-employee, option grants are immediately vested and the total stock-based compensation charge is recorded in the period of the measurement date.
The fair value of the Company's stock options and warrants grant is estimated using the Black-Scholes Option Pricing model, which uses certain assumptions related to risk-free interest rates, expected volatility, expected life of the stock options or warrants, and future dividends. Compensation expense is recorded based upon the value derived from the Black-Scholes Option Pricing model, and based on actual experience. The assumptions used in the Black-Scholes Option Pricing model could materially affect compensation expense recorded in future periods.
|Business and Credit Concentrations
Business and Credit Concentrations
Companys cash balances in financial institutions at times may exceed federally insured limits. As of March 31, 2014 and December 31, 2013, before adjustments for outstanding checks and deposits in transit, the Company had $4,073,272 and $4,143,367, respectively, on deposit with two banks. The deposits are federally insured up to $250,000 at each bank. . The Company believes that no significant concentration of credit risk exists with respect to these cash balances because of its assessment of the creditworthiness and financial viability of these financial institutions.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Certain significant estimates were made in connection with preparing the Companys financial statements. This includes certain inputs to the Black-Scholes Option Pricing model used to value options and warrants to purchase stock and derivative liabilities. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
|Fair value of financial instruments
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Effective January 1, 2008, fair value measurements are determined by the Company's adoption of authoritative guidance issued by the FASB, with the exception of the application of the statement to non-recurring, non-financial assets and liabilities as permitted. The adoption of the authoritative guidance did not have a material impact on the Company's fair value measurements. Fair value is defined in the authoritative guidance as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. A fair value hierarchy was established, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value into three broad levels as follows:
Level 1Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2Inputs, other than the quoted prices in active markets, are observable either directly or indirectly.
Level 3Unobservable inputs based on the Company's assumptions.
The Company is required to use of observable market data if such data is available without undue cost and effort.
|Research and Development Costs
Research and Development Costs
Costs incurred for research and development are expensed as incurred. Purchased materials that do not have an alternative future use are also expensed. Furthermore, costs incurred in the construction of prototypes with no certainty of any alternative future use and established commercial uses are also expensed.
For the three months ended March 31, 2014 and 2013, and for the period from inception to March 31, 2014, research and development costs incurred were $451,987, $373,555 and $11,133,145, respectively.
|Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In April 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2014-08, "Presentation of Financial Statements (Topic 205) and Property, Plant and Equipment (Topic 360)." ASU 2014-08 amends the requirements for reporting discontinued operations and requires additional disclosures about discontinued operations. Under the new guidance, only disposals representing a strategic shift in operations or that have a major effect on the Company's operations and financial results should be presented as discontinued operations. This new accounting guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2014. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting ASU 2014-08 on the Company's results of operations or financial condition.
On February 26, 2014, the FASB Board affirmed changes in a November 2013 Exposure Draft, Development Stage Entities (Topic 915): Elimination of Certain Financial Reporting Requirements, and directed the staff to draft a final Accounting Standards Update for vote by the Board. This is intended to reduce the cost and complexity in financial reporting by eliminating inception-to-date information from the financial statements of development stage entities.
Other recent accounting pronouncements issued by the FASB, including its Emerging Issues Task Force, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, and the Securities and Exchange Commission did not or are not believed by management to have a material impact on the Company's present or future consolidated financial statements.