2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2015
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Summary of significant accounting policies
The accompanying consolidated financial statements of QS Energy Inc. include the accounts of QS Energy Inc. (the Parent) and its wholly owned subsidiaries, QS Energy Pool, Inc. and STWA Asia Pte. Limited. Intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and the settlement of liabilities and commitments in the normal course of business. As reflected in the accompanying consolidated financial statements, the Company has not yet generated significant revenues and has incurred recurring net losses. During the nine months ended September 30, 2015, the Company incurred a net loss of $3,543,078 and used cash in operations of $2,200,461. These factors raise substantial doubt about the Companys ability to continue as a going concern. The ability of the Company to continue as a going concern is dependent upon the Companys ability to raise additional funds and implement its strategies. The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might be necessary if the Company is unable to continue as a going concern.
In addition, the Company's independent registered public accounting firm, in its report on the Company's December 31, 2014 financial statements, has raised substantial doubt about the Company's ability to continue as a going concern.
At September 30, 2015, the Company had cash on hand in the amount of $559,682. Management estimates that the current funds on hand will be sufficient to continue operations through January 2016. Management is currently seeking additional funds, primarily through the issuance of debt and equity securities for cash to operate our business, including without limitation the expenses it will incur in connection with the license and research and development agreements with Temple; costs associated with product development and commercialization of the AOT and Joule Heat technologies; costs to manufacture and ship the products; costs to design and implement an effective system of internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures; costs of maintaining our status as a public company by filing periodic reports with the SEC and costs required to protect our intellectual property. In addition, as discussed below, the Company has substantial contractual commitments, including without limitation salaries to our executive officers pursuant to employment agreements, certain payments to a former officer and consulting fees, during the remainder of 2015 and beyond.
No assurance can be given that any future financing will be available or, if available, that it will be on terms that are satisfactory to the Company. Even if the Company is able to obtain additional financing, it may contain undue restrictions on our operations, in the case of debt financing or cause substantial dilution for our stock holders, in case of equity financing.
The Company recognizes lease revenue upon commencement of the lease. Revenue on future product sales will be recognized upon meeting the following criteria: persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; delivery has occurred or services rendered; the seller's price to the buyer is fixed or determinable; and collectability is reasonably assured.
Basic and Diluted Income (loss) per share
Our computation of earnings per share (EPS) includes basic and diluted EPS. Basic EPS is measured as the income (loss) available to common stockholders divided by the weighted average common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted income (loss) per share reflects the potential dilution, using the treasury stock method, that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock or resulted in the issuance of common stock that then shared in the income (loss) of the Company as if they had been converted at the beginning of the periods presented, or issuance date, if later. In computing diluted income (loss) per share, the treasury stock method assumes that outstanding options and warrants are exercised and the proceeds are used to purchase common stock at the average market price during the period. Options and warrants may have a dilutive effect under the treasury stock method only when the average market price of the common stock during the period exceeds the exercise price of the options and warrants. Potential common shares that have an antidilutive effect (i.e., those that increase income per share or decrease loss per share) are excluded from the calculation of diluted EPS.
Income (loss) per common share is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the respective periods. Basic and diluted (loss) per common share is the same for periods in which the Company reported an operating loss because all warrants and stock options outstanding are anti-dilutive. At September 30, 2015 and 2014, we excluded the outstanding securities summarized below, which entitle the holders thereof to acquire shares of common stock as their effect would have been anti-dilutive.
The Company periodically issues stock options and warrants to employees and non-employees in non-capital raising transactions for services and for financing costs. The Company accounts for stock option and warrant grants issued and vesting to employees based on the authoritative guidance provided by the Financial Accounting Standards Board whereas the value of the award is measured on the date of grant and recognized over the vesting period. The Company accounts for stock option and warrant grants issued and vesting to non-employees in accordance with the authoritative guidance of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) whereas the value of the stock compensation is based upon the measurement date as determined at either a) the date at which a performance commitment is reached, or b) at the date at which the necessary performance to earn the equity instruments is complete. Non-employee stock-based compensation charges generally are amortized over the vesting period on a straight-line basis. In certain circumstances where there are no future performance requirements by the non-employee, option grants are immediately vested and the total stock-based compensation charge is recorded in the period of the measurement date.
The fair value of the Company's stock option and warrant grants is estimated using the Black-Scholes Option Pricing model, which uses certain assumptions related to risk-free interest rates, expected volatility, expected life of the stock options or warrants, and future dividends. Compensation expense is recorded based upon the value derived from the Black-Scholes Option Pricing model, and based on actual experience. The assumptions used in the Black-Scholes Option Pricing model could materially affect compensation expense recorded in future periods.
Business and Credit Concentrations
The Companys cash balances in financial institutions at times may exceed federally insured limits. As of September 30, 2015 and December 31, 2014, before adjustments for outstanding checks and deposits in transit, the Company had $559,682 and $2,247,557, respectively, on deposit with two banks. The deposits are federally insured up to $250,000 at each bank. The Company believes that no significant concentration of credit risk exists with respect to these cash balances because of its assessment of the creditworthiness and financial viability of these financial institutions.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates include those related to assumptions used in valuing equity instruments issued for financing and services. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Effective January 1, 2008, fair value measurements are determined by the Company's adoption of authoritative guidance issued by the FASB, with the exception of the application of the statement to non-recurring, non-financial assets and liabilities as permitted. The adoption of the authoritative guidance did not have a material impact on the Company's fair value measurements. Fair value is defined in the authoritative guidance as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. A fair value hierarchy was established, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value into three broad levels as follows:
Level 1Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2Inputs, other than the quoted prices in active markets, are observable either directly or indirectly.
Level 3Unobservable inputs based on the Company's assumptions.
The Company is required to use observable market data if such data is available without undue cost and effort. At September 30, 2015, the recorded amounts for accounts payable, accrued expenses and convertible debentures approximate their fair value due to their short-term nature.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. ASU 2014-09 is a comprehensive revenue recognition standard that will supersede nearly all existing revenue recognition guidance under current U.S. GAAP and replace it with a principle based approach for determining revenue recognition. ASU 2014-09 will require that companies recognize revenue based on the value of transferred goods or services as they occur in the contract. The ASU also will require additional disclosure about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts, including significant judgments and changes in judgments and assets recognized from costs incurred to obtain or fulfill a contract. ASU 2014-09 is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted only in annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods therein. Entities will be able to transition to the standard either retrospectively or as a cumulative-effect adjustment as of the date of adoption. The Company is in the process of evaluating the impact of ASU 2014-09 on the Company's financial statements and disclosures.
In June 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-12, Compensation Stock Compensation (Topic 718). The pronouncement was issued to clarify the accounting for share-based payments when the terms of an award provide that a performance target could be achieved after the requisite service period. The pronouncement is effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2015. The adoption of ASU 2014-12 is not expected to have a significant impact on the Companys consolidated financial position or results of operations.
On August 27, 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-15, Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entitys Ability to Continue as a Going Concern, which provides guidance on determining when and how to disclose going-concern uncertainties in the financial statements. The new standard requires management to perform interim and annual assessments of an entitys ability to continue as a going concern within one year of the date the financial statements are issued. An entity must provide certain disclosures if conditions or events raise substantial doubt about the entitys ability to continue as a going concern. The ASU applies to all entities and is effective for annual periods ending after December 15, 2016, and interim periods thereafter, with early adoption permitted.
In April 2015, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2015-03, InterestImputation of Interest (Subtopic 835-30): Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs. ASU 2015-03 requires debt issuance costs to be presented in the balance sheet as a direct deduction from the carrying value of the associated debt liability, consistent with the presentation of a debt discount. Prior to the issuance of the standard, debt issuance costs were required to be presented in the balance sheet as an asset. ASU 2015-03 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2015. The Company is currently evaluating the impact the adoption of ASU 2015-03 on the Companys financial statements and disclosures.
Other recent accounting pronouncements issued by the FASB, including its Emerging Issues Task Force, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, and the Securities and Exchange Commission did not or are not believed by management to have a material impact on the Company's present or future consolidated financial statement presentation or disclosures.