Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2019
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies




The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates include those related to assumptions used in impairment analysis for property and equipment valuing the issuance of convertible notes and the corresponding debt discount, valuing equity instruments issued for services, and realization of deferred tax assets, among others. Actual results could differ from those estimates.


Consolidation Policy


The accompanying consolidated financial statements of QS Energy Inc. include the accounts of QS Energy Inc. (the Parent) and its wholly owned subsidiaries, QS Energy Pool, Inc. and STWA Asia Pte. Limited. Intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.


Revenue Recognition Policy


Under its business plan, the Company anticipates the leasing of its primary technology. The Company will recognize lease revenue ratably over the life of the lease upon commencement of the lease. Revenue on future product sales will be recognized in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The underlying principle of ASC 606 is to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers at the amount expected to be collected. ASC 606 creates a five-step model that requires entities to exercise judgment when considering the terms of contract(s), which includes (1) identifying the contract(s) or agreement(s) with a customer, (2) identifying our performance obligations in the contract or agreement, (3) determining the transaction price, (4) allocating the transaction price to the separate performance obligations, and (5) recognizing revenue as each performance obligation is satisfied. Under ASC 606, revenue is recognized when performance obligations under the terms of a contract are satisfied, which occurs for the Company upon shipment or delivery of products or services to our customers based on written sales terms, which is also when control is transferred. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration we expect to receive in exchange for transferring the products or services to a customer.


Property and Equipment and Depreciation


Property and equipment are stated at cost. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method based on the estimated useful lives of the assets, generally ranging from three to ten years. Expenditures for major renewals and improvements that extend the useful lives of property and equipment are capitalized. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset or the lease term.


Impairment of Long-lived Assets


Our long-lived assets, such as property and equipment, are reviewed for impairment at least annually, or when events and circumstances indicate that depreciable or amortizable long-lived assets might be impaired and the undiscounted cash flows estimated to be generated by those assets are less than the carrying amount of those assets. When specific assets are determined to be unrecoverable, the cost basis of the asset is reduced to reflect the current value.


We use various assumptions in determining the current fair value of these assets, including future expected cash flows and discount rates, as well as other fair value measures. Our impairment loss calculations require us to apply judgment in estimating future cash flows, including forecasting useful lives of the assets and selecting the discount rate that reflects the risk inherent in future cash flows.


If actual results are not consistent with our assumptions and judgments used in estimating future cash flows and asset fair values, we may be exposed to future impairment losses that could be material to our results. Based upon management’s annual review, no impairments were recorded for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018.


Loss per Share


Basic loss per share is computed by dividing net loss available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted loss per share reflects the potential dilution, using the treasury stock method that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock or resulted in the issuance of common stock that then shared in the loss of the Company. In computing diluted loss per share, the treasury stock method assumes that outstanding options and warrants are exercised, and the proceeds are used to purchase common stock at the average market price during the period. Options and warrants may have a dilutive effect under the treasury stock method only when the average market price of the common stock during the period exceeds the exercise price of the options and warrants.


For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, the dilutive impact of outstanding stock options of 39,750,603 shares and 35,301,300 shares; outstanding warrants of 13,065,084 shares and 21,055,355 shares; and notes convertible into approximately 12,914,110 and 36,477,375 shares of our common stock, respectively, have been excluded because their impact on the loss per share is anti-dilutive.


Income Taxes


Income taxes are recognized for the amount of taxes payable or refundable for the current year and deferred tax liabilities and assets are recognized for the future tax consequences of transactions that have been recognized in the Company’s consolidated financial statements or tax returns. A valuation allowance is provided when it is more likely than not that some portion or entire deferred tax asset will not be realized.


Stock-Based Compensation


The Company periodically issues stock options and warrants to employees and non-employees in non-capital raising transactions for services and for financing costs. The Company accounts for stock option and warrant grants issued and vesting to employees based on the authoritative guidance provided by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) whereas the value of the award is measured on the date of grant and recognized over the vesting period.


From prior periods until December 31, 2018, the Company accounted for share-based compensation issued to non-employees and consultants in accordance with the provisions of FASB ASC 505-50, Equity - Based Payments to Non-EmployeesMeasurement of share-based payment transactions with non-employees is based on the fair value of whichever is more reliably measurable: (a) the goods or services received or (b) the equity instruments issued. The final fair value of the share-based payment transaction is determined at the performance completion date.


In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting (“ASU 2018-07”). The guidance was issued to simplify the accounting for share-based transactions by expanding the scope of ASU 2018-07 from only being applicable to share-based payments to employees to also include share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees. As a result, nonemployee share-based transactions will be measured by estimating the fair value of the equity instruments at the grant date, taking into consideration the probability of satisfying performance conditions. We adopted ASU 2018-07 on January 1, 2019. The adoption of the standard did not have a material impact on our financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2019 or the previously reported financial statements.


The fair value of the Company's stock options and warrants grant is estimated using the Black-Scholes Option Pricing model, which uses certain assumptions related to risk-free interest rates, expected volatility, expected life of the stock options or warrants, and future dividends. Compensation expense is recorded based upon the value derived from the Black-Scholes Option Pricing model and based on actual experience. The assumptions used in the Black-Scholes Option Pricing model could materially affect compensation expense recorded in future periods.


Fair Value of Financial Instruments


Effective January 1, 2008, fair value measurements are determined by the Company's adoption of authoritative guidance issued by the FASB, with the exception of the application of the statement to non-recurring, non-financial assets and liabilities as permitted. Fair value is defined in the authoritative guidance as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. A fair value hierarchy was established, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value into three broad levels as follows:


Level 1—Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.


Level 2—Inputs, other than the quoted prices in active markets, are observable either directly or indirectly.


Level 3—Unobservable inputs based on the Company's assumptions.


The Company is required to use of observable market data if such data is available without undue cost and effort.


The carrying amounts for cash, accounts payable, accrued expenses and convertible debentures approximate their fair value due to their short-term nature.


Patent Costs


Patent costs consist of patent-related legal and filing fees. Due to the uncertainty associated with the successful development of our AOT product, all patent costs are expensed as incurred. During the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, patent costs were $69,000 and $29,000, respectively, and were included as part of operating expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.


Recent Accounting Pronouncements


In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Credit Losses - Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments ("ASC 326"). The standard significantly changes how entities will measure credit losses for most financial assets, including accounts and notes receivables. The standard will replace today’s “incurred loss” approach with an “expected loss” model, under which companies will recognize allowances based on expected rather than incurred losses. Entities will apply the standard’s provisions as a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the first reporting period in which the guidance is effective. As small business filer, the standard will be effective for us for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2022. Management is currently assessing the impact of adopting this standard on the Company’s financial statements and related disclosures.


Management does not believe that other recent accounting pronouncements issued by the FASB, including its Emerging Issues Task Force, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, and the SEC will have a material impact on the Company’s present or future consolidated financial statements.