6. Research and Development
|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2021
|Research and Development [Abstract]|
|Research and Development||
The Company constructs, develops and tests the AOT technologies with internal resources and through the assistance of various third-party entities. Costs incurred and expensed include fees such as license fees, purchase of test equipment, pipeline pumping equipment, crude oil tank batteries, viscometers, SCADA systems, computer equipment, payroll and other related equipment and various logistical expenses for the purposes of evaluating and testing the Company’s AOT prototypes.
Costs incurred for research and development are expensed as incurred. Purchased materials that do not have an alternative future use are also expensed. Furthermore, costs incurred in the construction of prototypes with no certainty of any alternative future use and established commercial uses are also expensed.
For the three-month periods ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, our research and development expenses were $47,000 and $70,000, respectively.
During the periods ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company incurred total expenses of $0 and $23,000, respectively, in the manufacture and testing of the AOT prototype equipment. These expenses have been reflected as part of Research and Development expenses on the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
Temple University Licensing Agreements
On August 1, 2011, the Company and Temple University (“Temple”) entered into two (2) Exclusive License Agreements (collectively, the “License Agreements”) relating to Temple’s patent applications, patents and technical information pertaining to technology associated with an electric and/or magnetic field assisted fuel injector system (the “First Temple License”), and to technology to reduce crude oil viscosity (the “Second Temple License”). The License Agreements are exclusive, and the territory licensed to the Company is worldwide and replace previously issued License Agreements.
Pursuant to the two licensing agreements, the Company paid Temple a non-refundable license maintenance fee of $300,000 and agreed to pay (i) annual maintenance fees of $187,500; (ii) royalty fee ranging from 4% up to 7% from revenues generated from the licensing agreements; and (iii) 25% of all revenues generated from sub-licensees to secure or maintain the sub-license or option thereon. The term of the licenses commenced in August 2011 and will expire upon expiration of the patents. The agreements can also be terminated by either party upon notification under terms of the licensing agreements or if the Company ceases the development of the patent or fails to commercialize the patent rights.
Total expenses recognized during each three-month period ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 pursuant to these two License Agreements amounted to $47,000 and has been reflected in Research and Development expenses on the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. In the three-month periods ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company also recognized penalty interest on past-due balances of $12,000 and $12,000, respectively, which is included as part of interest and financing expense in the accompanying statements of operations.
As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, total unpaid fees due to Temple pursuant to these agreements are $1,550,000 and $1,491,000, respectively, which are included as part of Accounts Payable – license agreements in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. With regards to the unpaid fees to Temple, a total of $135,000 are deferred until such time the Company achieves a revenue milestone of $835,000 or upon termination of the licensing agreements and the remaining $1,415,000 are deemed past due. The Company is currently in discussions with Temple to settle or cure the past due balance.
No revenues were earned from the two License Agreements during the three-month periods ended March 31, 2021 and March 31, 2020.
The entire disclosure for research, development, and computer software activities, including contracts and arrangements to be performed for others and with federal government. Includes costs incurred (1) in a planned search or critical investigation aimed at discovery of new knowledge with the hope that such knowledge will be useful in developing a new product or service, a new process or technique, or in bringing about a significant improvement to an existing product or process; or (2) to translate research findings or other knowledge into a plan or design for a new product or process or for a significant improvement to an existing product or process whether intended for sale or the entity's use, during the reporting period charged to research and development projects, including the costs of developing computer software up to the point in time of achieving technological feasibility and in-process research and development acquired in a business combination consummated during the period.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef