Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2020
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies




The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates include those related to assumptions used in impairment analysis for property and equipment valuing the issuance of convertible notes and the corresponding debt discount, valuing equity instruments issued for services, and realization of deferred tax assets, among others. Actual results could differ from those estimates.


Consolidation Policy


The accompanying consolidated financial statements of QS Energy Inc. include the accounts of QS Energy Inc. (the Parent) and its wholly owned subsidiaries, QS Energy Pool, Inc. and STWA Asia Pte. Limited. Intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.


Revenue Recognition Policy


Under its business plan, the Company anticipates the leasing of its primary technology. The Company will recognize lease revenue ratably over the life of the lease upon commencement of the lease. Revenue on future product sales will be recognized in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The underlying principle of ASC 606 is to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers at the amount expected to be collected. ASC 606 creates a five-step model that requires entities to exercise judgment when considering the terms of contract(s), which includes (1) identifying the contract(s) or agreement(s) with a customer, (2) identifying our performance obligations in the contract or agreement, (3) determining the transaction price, (4) allocating the transaction price to the separate performance obligations, and (5) recognizing revenue as each performance obligation is satisfied. Under ASC 606, revenue is recognized when performance obligations under the terms of a contract are satisfied, which occurs for the Company upon shipment or delivery of products or services to our customers based on written sales terms, which is also when control is transferred. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration we expect to receive in exchange for transferring the products or services to a customer.


Property and Equipment and Depreciation


Property and equipment are stated at cost. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method based on the estimated useful lives of the assets, generally ranging from three to ten years. Expenditures for major renewals and improvements that extend the useful lives of property and equipment are capitalized. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset or the lease term.


Impairment of Long-lived Assets


Our long-lived assets, such as property and equipment, are reviewed for impairment at least annually, or when events and circumstances indicate that depreciable or amortizable long-lived assets might be impaired and the undiscounted cash flows estimated to be generated by those assets are less than the carrying amount of those assets. When specific assets are determined to be unrecoverable, the cost basis of the asset is reduced to reflect the current value.


We use various assumptions in determining the current fair value of these assets, including future expected cash flows and discount rates, as well as other fair value measures. Our impairment loss calculations require us to apply judgment in estimating future cash flows, including forecasting useful lives of the assets and selecting the discount rate that reflects the risk inherent in future cash flows.


If actual results are not consistent with our assumptions and judgments used in estimating future cash flows and asset fair values, we may be exposed to future impairment losses that could be material to our results. Based upon management’s annual review, no impairments were recorded for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019.


Loss per Share


Basic loss per share is computed by dividing net loss available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted loss per share reflects the potential dilution, using the treasury stock method that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock or resulted in the issuance of common stock that then shared in the loss of the Company. In computing diluted loss per share, the treasury stock method assumes that outstanding options and warrants are exercised, and the proceeds are used to purchase common stock at the average market price during the period. Options and warrants may have a dilutive effect under the treasury stock method only when the average market price of the common stock during the period exceeds the exercise price of the options and warrants.


For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, the dilutive impact of outstanding stock options of 32,480,601 shares and 39,750,603 shares; outstanding warrants of 8,683,677 shares and 13,065,084 shares; and notes convertible into approximately 13,184,099 and 12,914,110 shares of our common stock, respectively, have been excluded because their impact on the loss per share is anti-dilutive.


Income Taxes


Income taxes are recognized for the amount of taxes payable or refundable for the current year and deferred tax liabilities and assets are recognized for the future tax consequences of transactions that have been recognized in the Company’s consolidated financial statements or tax returns. A valuation allowance is provided when it is more likely than not that some portion or entire deferred tax asset will not be realized.


Stock-Based Compensation


The Company periodically issues stock options and warrants to employees and non-employees in non-capital raising transactions for services and for financing costs. The Company accounts for stock-based payments to officers, directors, employees, and consultants by measuring the cost of services received in exchange for equity awards utilizing the grant date fair value of the awards, with the cost recognized as compensation expense on the straight-line basis in the Company’s financial statements over the vesting period of the awards. 


The fair value of the Company's stock options and warrants grant is estimated using the Black-Scholes Option Pricing model, which uses certain assumptions related to risk-free interest rates, expected volatility, expected life of the stock options or warrants, and future dividends. Compensation expense is recorded based upon the value derived from the Black-Scholes Option Pricing model and based on actual experience. The assumptions used in the Black-Scholes Option Pricing model could materially affect compensation expense recorded in future periods.


Fair Value of Financial Instruments


Effective January 1, 2008, fair value measurements are determined by the Company's adoption of authoritative guidance issued by the FASB, with the exception of the application of the statement to non-recurring, non-financial assets and liabilities as permitted. Fair value is defined in the authoritative guidance as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. A fair value hierarchy was established, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value into three broad levels as follows:


Level 1—Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.


Level 2—Inputs, other than the quoted prices in active markets, are observable either directly or indirectly.


Level 3—Unobservable inputs based on the Company's assumptions.


The Company is required to use of observable market data if such data is available without undue cost and effort.


The carrying amounts for cash, accounts payable, accrued expenses and convertible debentures approximate their fair value due to their short-term nature.


Patent Costs


Patent costs consist of patent-related legal and filing fees. Due to the uncertainty associated with the successful development of our AOT product, all patent costs are expensed as incurred. During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, patent costs were $15,000 and $69,000, respectively, and were included as part of operating expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.


Convertible Notes Payable


The Company accounts for convertible notes payable (when it has determined that the embedded conversion options should not be bifurcated from their host instruments) in accordance with ASC 470-20, Debt with Conversion and Other Options. Accordingly, the Company records, when necessary, discounts to convertible notes payable for the intrinsic value of conversion options embedded in debt instruments based upon the differences between the fair value of the underlying common stock at the commitment date of the note transaction and the effective conversion price embedded in the note. Debt discounts under these arrangements are amortized over the term of the related debt to their earliest date of redemption. The Company determined that the embedded conversion options in its issued convertible notes payable do not meet the definition of a derivative liability.


Recent Accounting Pronouncements


Recent accounting pronouncements issued by the FASB, including its Emerging Issues Task Force, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, and the Securities and Exchange Commission did not or are not believed by management to have a material impact on the Company's present or future consolidated financial statement presentation or disclosures.


In December 2019, the Financial Accounting Standards board (the “FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (“ASU 2019-12”). ASU 2019-12 simplifies the accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions and enhances and simplifies various aspects of the income tax accounting guidance in ASC 740. ASU 2019-12 will be effective January 1, 2021. The adoption of ASU 2019-12 is not expected to have any impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statement presentation or disclosures subsequent to its adoption.


In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt — Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity (“ASU 2020-06). ASU 2020-06 simplifies the accounting for convertible debt by eliminating the beneficial conversion and cash conversion accounting models. Upon adoption of ASU 2020-06, convertible debt proceeds, unless issued with a substantial premium or an embedded conversion feature that is not clearly and closely related to the host contract, will no longer be allocated between debt and equity components. This modification will reduce the issue discount and result in less non-cash interest expense in financial statements. ASU 2020-06 also updates the earnings per share calculation and requires entities to assume share settlement when the convertible debt can be settled in cash or shares. ASU 2020-06 will be effective January 1, 2024, and a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings is required upon adoption. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than January 1, 2021, including interim periods within that year. The adoption of ASU 2020-06 is not expected to have any impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statement presentation or disclosures subsequent to its adoption, with any effect being largely dependent on the composition and terms of outstanding financial instruments at the time of adoption.