2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|6 Months Ended|
Jun. 30, 2019
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
The accompanying consolidated financial statements of QS Energy Inc. include the accounts of QS Energy Inc. (the Parent) and its wholly owned subsidiaries, QS Energy Pool, Inc. and STWA Asia Pte. Limited. Intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and the settlement of liabilities and commitments in the normal course of business. As reflected in the accompanying consolidated financial statements, during the six-months ended June 30, 2019, the Company incurred a net loss of $3,740,000, used cash in operations of $1,833,000 and had a stockholders’ deficit of $1,524,000 as of that date. These factors raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. The ability of the Company to continue as a going concern is dependent upon the Company’s ability to raise additional funds and implement its business plan. The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might be necessary if the Company is unable to continue as a going concern.
In addition, the Company's independent registered public accounting firm, in its report on the Company's December 31, 2018 financial statements, has raised substantial doubt about the Company's ability to continue as a going concern.
At June 30, 2019, the Company had cash on hand in the amount of $711,000. Management estimates that the current funds on hand will be sufficient to continue operations through November 2019, or, subject to actual costs incurred implementing design modifications to our AOT demonstration project described in Part I, Item 2, October 2019. Management is currently seeking additional funds, primarily through the issuance of debt and equity securities for cash to operate our business, including without limitation the expenses it will incur in connection with the license agreements with Temple; costs associated with product development and commercialization of the AOT technologies; costs to manufacture and ship the products; costs to design and implement an effective system of internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures; costs of maintaining our status as a public company by filing periodic reports with the SEC and costs required to protect our intellectual property. In addition, as discussed below, the Company has substantial contractual commitments, including without limitation salaries to our executive officers pursuant to employment agreements, certain payments to a former officer and consulting fees, during the remainder of 2019 and beyond.
No assurance can be given that any future financing will be available or, if available, that it will be on terms that are satisfactory to the Company. Even if the Company is able to obtain additional financing, it may contain undue restrictions on our operations, in the case of debt financing or cause substantial dilution for our stockholders in case of equity financing.
Basic and Diluted Income (loss) per share
Our computation of earnings per share (“EPS”) includes basic and diluted EPS. Basic EPS is measured as the income (loss) available to common stockholders divided by the weighted average common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted income (loss) per share reflects the potential dilution, using the treasury stock method, that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock or resulted in the issuance of common stock that then shared in the income (loss) of the Company as if they had been converted at the beginning of the periods presented, or issuance date, if later. In computing diluted income (loss) per share, the treasury stock method assumes that outstanding options and warrants are exercised and the proceeds are used to purchase common stock at the average market price during the period. Options and warrants may have a dilutive effect under the treasury stock method only when the average market price of the common stock during the period exceeds the exercise price of the options and warrants. Potential common shares that have an antidilutive effect (i.e., those that increase income per share or decrease loss per share) are excluded from the calculation of diluted EPS.
Income (loss) per common share is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the respective periods. Basic and diluted (loss) per common share is the same for periods in which the Company reported an operating loss because all warrants and stock options outstanding are anti-dilutive. At June 30, 2019 and 2019, we excluded the outstanding securities summarized below, which entitle the holders thereof to acquire shares of common stock as their effect would have been anti-dilutive.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates include those related to accruals for potential liabilities, assumptions used in valuing equity instruments issued for financing and services and realization of deferred tax assets, among others. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Revenue Recognition Policy
Under its business plan, the Company anticipates the leasing of its primary technology. The Company will recognize lease revenue ratably over the life of the lease upon commencement of the lease. Revenue on future product sales will be recognized in accordance with Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. ASU 2014-09 is a comprehensive revenue recognition standard that supersedes nearly all existing revenue recognition guidance under current U.S. GAAP and replaces it with a principle-based approach or determining revenue recognition. ASU 2014-09 will require that companies recognize revenue based on the value of transferred goods or services as they occur in the contract. The ASU also will require additional disclosure about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts, including significant judgments and changes in judgments and assets recognized from costs incurred to obtain or fulfill a contract.
Research and Development Costs
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred and consist primarily of fees paid to consultants and outside service providers, and other expenses relating to the acquisition, design, development and testing of the Company’s products. Certain research and development activities are incurred under contract. In those instances, research and development costs are charged to operations ratably over the life of the underlying contracts, unless the achievement of milestones, the completion of contracted work, or other information indicates that a different expensing schedule is more appropriate. Payments made pursuant to research and development contracts are initially recorded as advances on research and development contract services in the Company’s consolidated balance sheet and then charged to research and development costs in the Company’s consolidated statement of operations as those contract services are performed.
In January 2019, the Company paid $500,000 as a deposit under terms of a work order for work to be performed by a pipeline operator. During the period ended June 30, 2019, the Company amortized $450,000 of such amount as a research and development cost based on the progress of work performed as required by the contract, and has reflected the $50,000 remaining amount as Prepaid expenses and other current assets in the accompanying consolidated balance sheet as of June 30, 2019.
For the six-month periods ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 research and development costs were $583,000 and $95,000, respectively. For the three-month periods ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 research and development costs were $432,000 and $48,000, respectively.
Patent costs consist of patent-related legal and filing fees. Due to the uncertainty associated with the successful development of our AOT and Joule Heat products, all patent costs are expensed as incurred. During the six-month periods ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, patent costs were $9,000 and $12,000, respectively, which is included as part of operating expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recent accounting pronouncements issued by the FASB, including its Emerging Issues Task Force, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, and the Securities and Exchange Commission did not or are not believed by management to have a material impact on the Company's present or future consolidated financial statement presentation or disclosures.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef