Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and the settlement of liabilities and commitments in the normal course of business. As reflected in the accompanying consolidated financial statements, during the nine-months ended September 30, 2022, the Company incurred a net loss of $909,000, used cash in operations of $571,000 and had a stockholders’ deficit of $4,422,000 as of that date. In addition, as of September 30, 2022, thirty-two notes payable with an aggregate balance of $1,590,000 and certain obligations to a former officer are past due. These factors raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern within a reasonable period of time, which is considered to be one year from the issuance date of these financial statements. In addition, the Company's independent registered public accounting firm, in its report on the Company's December 31, 2021 financial statements, has raised substantial doubt about the Company's ability to continue as a going concern. The ability of the Company to continue as a going concern is dependent upon the Company’s ability to raise additional funds and implement its business plan. The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might be necessary if the Company is unable to continue as a going concern.
At September 30, 2022, the Company had cash on hand in the amount of $252,000. Management estimates that the current funds on hand will be sufficient to continue operations through December 2022. Management is currently seeking additional funds, primarily through the issuance of debt and equity securities for cash to operate our business, including without limitation the expenses it will incur in connection with the license agreements with Temple; costs associated with product development and commercialization of the AOT technologies; costs to manufacture and ship the products; costs to design and implement an effective system of internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures; costs of maintaining our status as a public company, including, without limitation, legal and accounting fees and costs associated therewith, by filing periodic reports with the SEC and fees and costs required to protect our intellectual property. In addition, as discussed below, the Company has substantial contractual commitments, including without limitation salaries to our executive officers pursuant to employment agreements, certain payments to a former officer and consulting fees, during the remainder of 2022 and beyond.
No assurance can be given that any future financing will be available or, if available, that it will be on terms that are satisfactory to the Company. Even if the Company is able to obtain additional financing, it may contain undue restrictions on our operations, in the case of debt financing or cause substantial dilution for our stockholders in case of equity financing.
Macroeconomic factors such as inflation, rising interest rates, governmental responses there to and possible recession caused thereby also add significant uncertainty to our operations and possible effects to the amount and type of financing available to the Company in the future.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements are unaudited. These unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) and applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) regarding interim financial reporting. Certain information and note disclosures normally included in the financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. Accordingly, these interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto contained in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on March 31, 2022. The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2021, included herein was derived from the audited consolidated financial statements as of that date, but does not include all disclosures, including notes, required by GAAP.
In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements contain all adjustments necessary to fairly present the Company’s financial position and results of operations for the interim periods reflected. Except as noted, all adjustments contained herein are of a normal recurring nature. Results of operations for the fiscal periods presented herein are not necessarily indicative of the full fiscal year-end results.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates include those related to accruals for potential liabilities, assumptions used in valuing equity instruments issued for financing and services and realization of deferred tax assets, among others. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
The accompanying consolidated financial statements of QS Energy Inc. include the accounts of QS Energy Inc. (the Parent) and its wholly owned subsidiaries, QS Energy Pool, Inc. and STWA Asia Pte. Limited. Intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
Our computation of earnings per share (“EPS”) includes basic and diluted EPS. Basic EPS is measured as the income (loss) available to common stockholders divided by the weighted average common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted income (loss) per share reflects the potential dilution, using the treasury stock method, that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock or resulted in the issuance of common stock that then shared in the income (loss) of the Company as if they had been converted at the beginning of the periods presented, or issuance date, if later.
At September 30, 2022 and 2021, we excluded the following dilutive shares as their effect would have been anti-dilutive.
The Company periodically issues stock options and restricted stock awards to employees and non-employees in non-capital raising transactions for services and for financing costs. Stock option grants, which are generally time or performance vested, are measured at the grant date fair value and depending on the conditions associated with the vesting of the award, compensation cost is recognized on a straight-line or graded basis over the vesting period. Recognition of compensation expense for non-employees is in the same period and manner as if the Company had paid cash for the services. The fair value of stock options granted is estimated using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, which uses certain assumptions related to risk-free interest rates, expected volatility, expected life, and future dividends. The assumptions used in the Black-Scholes option pricing model could materially affect compensation expense recorded in future periods.
Research and Development Costs
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred and consist primarily of fees paid to consultants and outside service providers, and other expenses relating to the acquisition, design, development and testing of the Company’s products. Certain research and development activities are incurred under contract. In those instances, research and development costs are charged to operations ratably over the life of the underlying contracts, unless the achievement of milestones, the completion of contracted work, or other information indicates that a different expensing schedule is more appropriate. Payments made pursuant to research and development contracts are initially recorded as advances on research and development contract services in the Company’s consolidated balance sheet and then charged to research and development costs in the Company’s consolidated statement of operations as those contract services are performed.
For the nine-month periods ended September 30, 2022 and 2021 research and development costs were $227,000 and $259,000, respectively. For the three-month periods ended September 30, 2022 and 2021 research and development costs were $130,000 and $152,000, respectively.
Patent costs consist of patent-related legal and filing fees. Due to the uncertainty associated with the successful development of our AOT and other products, all patent costs are expensed as incurred. During the nine-month periods ended September 30, 2022 and 2021, patent costs were $13,000 and $16,000, respectively, which is included as part of operating expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2020, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2020-06 (“ASU 2020-06”) Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40). ASU 2020-06 reduces the number of accounting models for convertible debt instruments by eliminating the cash conversion and beneficial conversion accounting models. As a result, the Company’s convertible debt instruments will be accounted for as a single liability measured at its amortized cost as long as no other features require bifurcation and recognition as derivatives. For contracts in an entity’s own equity, the type of contracts primarily affected by this update are freestanding and embedded features that are accounted for as derivatives under the current guidance due to a failure to meet the settlement conditions of the derivative scope exception. The Company early adopted ASU No. 2020-06 effective January 1, 2021 using the modified retrospective approach. Upon adoption, the following changes resulted: (i) the intrinsic value of the beneficial conversion feature recorded in 2020 was reversed as of the effective date of adoption, thereby resulting in an increase in the convertible debentures with an offsetting adjustment to additional paid in capital and (ii) interest expense recorded in 2020 that was related to the amortization of the discount related to the beneficial conversion feature was reversed against opening accumulated deficit. Accordingly, the adoption of ASU 2020-06 resulted in a decrease to accumulated deficit of $30,000, a decrease in addition paid in capital of $60,000, and an increase in total stockholders’ deficit of $30,000 on January 1, 2021.
In May 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-04, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Debt — Modifications and Extinguishments (Subtopic 470-50), Compensation — Stock Compensation (Topic 718), and Derivatives and Hedging — Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Issuer’s Accounting for Certain Modifications or Exchanges of Freestanding Equity-Classified Written Call Options. ASU 2021-04 provides guidance as to how an issuer should account for a modification of the terms or conditions or an exchange of a freestanding equity-classified written call option (i.e., a warrant) that remains classified after modification or exchange as an exchange of the original instrument for a new instrument. An issuer should measure the effect of a modification or exchange as the difference between the fair value of the modified or exchanged warrant and the fair value of that warrant immediately before modification or exchange and then apply a recognition model that comprises four categories of transactions and the corresponding accounting treatment for each category (equity issuance, debt origination, debt modification, and modifications unrelated to equity issuance and debt origination or modification). ASU 2021-04 is effective for all entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, including interim periods within those fiscal years. An entity should apply the guidance provided in ASU 2021-04 prospectively to modifications or exchanges occurring on or after the effective date. The Company adopted ASU 2021-04 effective January 1, 2022. The adoption of ASU 2021-04 did not have any impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statement presentation or disclosures.
Recent accounting pronouncements issued by the FASB, including its Emerging Issues Task Force, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, and the Securities and Exchange Commission did not or are not believed by management to have a material impact on the Company's present or future consolidated financial statement presentation or disclosures.