Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2023
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies


  2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies


Going Concern


The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and the settlement of liabilities and commitments in the normal course of business. As reflected in the accompanying consolidated financial statements, during the three-months ended March 31, 2023, the Company incurred a net loss of $334,000, used cash in operations of $146,000 and had a stockholders’ deficit of $4,785,000 as of March 31, 2023. In addition, as of March 31, 2023, thirty-four notes payable with an aggregate balance of $1,772,000, license agreement payables of $2,021,000 and certain obligations to a former officer are past due. These factors raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. In addition, the Company's independent registered public accounting firm, in its report on the Company's December 31, 2022 financial statements, has raised substantial doubt about the Company's ability to continue as a going concern. The ability of the Company to continue as a going concern is dependent upon the Company’s ability to raise additional funds and implement its business plan. The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might be necessary if the Company is unable to continue as a going concern.


At March 31, 2023, the Company had cash on hand in the amount of $107,000. Management estimates that the current funds on hand will be sufficient to continue operations through approximately June 2023. Management is currently seeking additional funds, primarily through the issuance of debt and equity securities for cash to operate our business, including without limitation the expenses it will incur in connection with the license agreements with Temple; costs associated with product development and commercialization of the AOT technologies; costs to manufacture and ship the products; costs to design and implement an effective system of internal controls and disclosure of controls and procedures; costs of maintaining our status as a public company by filing periodic reports with the SEC and costs required to protect our intellectual property. In addition, as discussed below, the Company has substantial contractual commitments, including without limitation, certain payments to a former officer and consulting fees, during the remainder of 2023 and beyond.


No assurance can be given that any future financing will be available or, if available, that it will be on terms that are satisfactory to the Company. Even if the Company is able to obtain additional financing, it may contain undue restrictions on our operations, in the case of debt financing or cause substantial dilution for our stockholders in case of equity financing.


Basis of Presentation


The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements are unaudited. These unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) and applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) regarding interim financial reporting. Certain information and note disclosures normally included in the financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. Accordingly, these interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto contained in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on March 30, 2023. The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2022, included herein was derived from the audited consolidated financial statements as of that date, but does not include all disclosures, including notes, required by GAAP.


In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements contain all adjustments necessary to fairly present the Company’s financial position and results of operations for the interim periods reflected. Except as noted, all adjustments contained herein are of a normal recurring nature. Results of operations for the fiscal periods presented herein are not necessarily indicative of the full fiscal year-end results.


The accompanying consolidated financial statements of QS Energy Inc. include the accounts of QS Energy Inc. (the Parent) and its wholly owned subsidiaries, QS Energy Pool, Inc. and STWA Asia Pte. Limited. Intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.




The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates include those related to accruals for potential liabilities, assumptions used in valuing equity instruments issued for financing and services and realization of deferred tax assets, among others. Actual results could differ from those estimates.


Basic and Diluted Income (loss) per share


Our computation of earnings per share (“EPS”) includes basic and diluted EPS. Basic EPS is measured as the income (loss) available to common stockholders divided by the weighted average common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted income (loss) per share reflects the potential dilution, using the treasury stock method, that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock or resulted in the issuance of common stock that then shared in the income (loss) of the Company as if they had been converted at the beginning of the periods presented, or issuance date, if later.


At March 31, 2023 and 2022, we excluded the following dilutive shares as their effect would have been anti-dilutive.

    March 31,
    March 31,
Options     26,057,601       27,080,601  
Warrants     21,377,489       19,652,149  
Common stock issuable upon conversion of notes payable     30,262,716       24,284,235  
Total     77,697,806       71,016,985  


Stock-Based Compensation


The Company periodically issues stock options and restricted stock awards to employees and non-employees in non-capital raising transactions for services and for financing costs. Stock option grants, which are generally time or performance vested, are measured at the grant date fair value and depending on the conditions associated with the vesting of the award, compensation cost is recognized on a straight-line or graded basis over the vesting period. Recognition of compensation expense for non-employees is in the same period and manner as if the Company had paid cash for the services. The fair value of stock options granted is estimated using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, which uses certain assumptions related to risk-free interest rates, expected volatility, expected life, and future dividends. The assumptions used in the Black-Scholes option pricing model could materially affect compensation expense recorded in future periods.


Research and Development Costs


Research and development costs are expensed as incurred, and consist primarily of fees paid to consultants and outside service providers, and other expenses relating to the acquisition, design, development and testing of the Company’s products. Certain research and development activities are incurred under contract. In those instances, research and development costs are charged to operations ratably over the life of the underlying contracts, unless the achievement of milestones, the completion of contracted work, or other information indicates that a different expensing schedule is more appropriate. Payments made pursuant to research and development contracts are initially recorded as advances on research and development contract services in the Company’s consolidated balance sheet and then charged to research and development costs in the Company’s consolidated statement of operations as those contract services are performed. For the three-month periods ended March 31, 2023 and 2022 research and development costs were $54,000 and $48,000, respectively.


Patent Costs


Patent costs consist of patent-related legal and filing fees. Due to the uncertainty associated with the successful development of our AOT product, all patent costs are expensed as incurred. During the three-month periods ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, patent costs were $100 and $3,000, respectively, and were included as part of operating expenses in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations.


Recent Accounting Pronouncements


Recent accounting pronouncements issued by the FASB, including its Emerging Issues Task Force, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, and the Securities and Exchange Commission did not or are not believed by management to have a material impact on the Company's present or future consolidated financial statement presentation or disclosures.


In August 2020, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2020-06, Debt — Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity (“ASU 2020-06). ASU 2020-06 simplifies the accounting for convertible debt by eliminating the beneficial conversion and cash conversion accounting models. Upon adoption of ASU 2020-06, convertible debt proceeds, unless issued with a substantial premium or an embedded conversion feature that is not clearly and closely related to the host contract, will no longer be allocated between debt and equity components. This modification will reduce the issue discount and result in less non-cash interest expense in financial statements. ASU 2020-06 also updates the earnings per share calculation and requires entities to assume share settlement when the convertible debt can be settled in cash or shares. ASU 2020-06 will be effective January 1, 2024, and a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings is required upon adoption. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than January 1, 2021, including interim periods within that year. The adoption of ASU 2020-06 is not expected to have any impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statement presentation or disclosures subsequent to its adoption, with any effect being largely dependent on the composition and terms of outstanding financial instruments at the time of adoption.