Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2023
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and the settlement of liabilities and commitments in the normal course of business. As reflected in the accompanying consolidated financial statements, during the nine-months ended September 30, 2023, the Company incurred a net loss of $919,000, used cash in operations of $491,000 and had a stockholders’ deficit of $5,041,000 as of that date. In addition, as of September 30, 2023, thirty-eight notes payable with an aggregate balance of $1,977,000 and certain obligations to a former officer are past due. These factors raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern within a reasonable period of time, which is considered to be one year from the issuance date of these financial statements. In addition, the Company's independent registered public accounting firm, in its report on the Company's December 31, 2022 financial statements, has raised substantial doubt about the Company's ability to continue as a going concern.
The ability of the Company to continue as a going concern is dependent upon the Company’s ability to raise additional funds and implement its business plan. The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might be necessary if the Company is unable to continue as a going concern.
At September 30, 2023, the Company had cash on hand in the amount of $214,000. Management estimates that the current funds on hand will be sufficient to continue operations through December 2023. Management is currently seeking additional funds, primarily through the issuance of debt and equity securities for cash to operate our business, including without limitation the expenses it will incur in connection with the license agreements with Temple; costs associated with product development and commercialization of the AOT technologies; costs to manufacture and ship the products; costs to design and implement an effective system of internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures; costs of maintaining our status as a public company, including, without limitation, legal and accounting fees and costs associated therewith, by filing periodic reports with the SEC and fees and costs required to protect our intellectual property. In addition, as discussed below, the Company has substantial contractual commitments, including without limitation salaries to our executive officers pursuant to employment agreements, certain payments to a former officer and consulting fees, during the remainder of 2023 and beyond.
No assurance can be given that any future financing will be available or, if available, that it will be on terms that are satisfactory to the Company. Even if the Company is able to obtain additional financing, it may contain undue restrictions on our operations, in the case of debt financing or cause substantial dilution for our stockholders in case of equity financing.
Macroeconomic factors such as inflation, rising interest rates, governmental responses there to and possible recession caused thereby also add significant uncertainty to our operations and possible effects to the amount and type of financing available to the Company in the future.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements are unaudited. These unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) and applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) regarding interim financial reporting. Certain information and note disclosures normally included in the financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. Accordingly, these interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto contained in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on March 30, 2023. The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2022, included herein was derived from the audited consolidated financial statements as of that date, but does not include all disclosures, including notes, required by GAAP.
In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements contain all adjustments necessary to fairly present the Company’s financial position and results of operations for the interim periods reflected. Except as noted, all adjustments contained herein are of a normal recurring nature. Results of operations for the fiscal periods presented herein are not necessarily indicative of the full fiscal year-end results.
The accompanying consolidated financial statements of QS Energy Inc. include the accounts of QS Energy Inc. (the Parent) and its wholly owned subsidiaries, QS Energy Pool, Inc. and STWA Asia Pte. Limited. Intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates include those related to accruals for potential liabilities, assumptions used in valuing equity instruments issued for financing and services and realization of deferred tax assets, among others. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Our computation of earnings per share (“EPS”) includes basic and diluted EPS. Basic EPS is measured as the income (loss) available to common stockholders divided by the weighted average common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted income (loss) per share reflects the potential dilution, using the treasury stock method, that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock or resulted in the issuance of common stock that then shared in the income (loss) of the Company as if they had been converted at the beginning of the periods presented, or issuance date, if later.
At September 30, 2023 and 2022, we excluded the following dilutive shares as their effect would have been anti-dilutive.
The Company periodically issues stock options and restricted stock awards to employees and non-employees in non-capital raising transactions for services and for financing costs. Stock option grants, which are generally time or performance vested, are measured at the grant date fair value and depending on the conditions associated with the vesting of the award, compensation cost is recognized on a straight-line or graded basis over the vesting period. Recognition of compensation expense for non-employees is in the same period and manner as if the Company had paid cash for the services. The fair value of stock options granted is estimated using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, which uses certain assumptions related to risk-free interest rates, expected volatility, expected life, and future dividends. The assumptions used in the Black-Scholes option pricing model could materially affect compensation expense recorded in future periods.
Research and Development Costs
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred and consist primarily of fees paid to consultants and outside service providers, and other expenses relating to the acquisition, design, development and testing of the Company’s products. Certain research and development activities are incurred under contract. In those instances, research and development costs are charged to operations ratably over the life of the underlying contracts, unless the achievement of milestones, the completion of contracted work, or other information indicates that a different expensing schedule is more appropriate. Payments made pursuant to research and development contracts are initially recorded as advances on research and development contract services in the Company’s consolidated balance sheet and then charged to research and development costs in the Company’s consolidated statement of operations as those contract services are performed.
For the nine-month periods ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 research and development costs were $148,000 and $227,000, respectively. For the three-month periods ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 research and development costs were $47,000 and $130,000, respectively.
Patent costs consist of patent-related legal and filing fees. Due to the uncertainty associated with the successful development of our AOT and other products, all patent costs are expensed as incurred. During the nine-month periods ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, patent costs were $3,000 and $13,000, respectively, which is included as part of operating expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recent accounting pronouncements and guidance issued by the FASB, including its Emerging Issues Task Force, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, and the Securities and Exchange Commission did not or are not believed by management to have a material impact on the Company's present or future consolidated financial statement presentation or disclosures.